At its core a $t$-design is a method for sampling from a set of unitaries in a way which mimics sampling randomly from the Haar measure on the unitary group, with applications across quantum information processing and physics. We construct new families of quantum circuits on $n$-qubits giving rise to $\varepsilon$-approximate unitary $t$-designs efficiently in $O(n^3t^2)$ depth. These quantum circuits are based on a relaxation of technical requirements in previous constructions. In particular, the construction of circuits which give efficient approximate $t$-designs by Brandao, Harrow, and Horodecki (F.G.S.L Brandao, A.W Harrow, and M. Horodecki, Commun. Math. Phys. (2016).) required choosing gates from ensembles which contained inverses for all elements, and that the entries of the unitaries are algebraic. We reduce these requirements, to sets that contain elements without inverses in the set, and non-algebraic entries, which we dub partially invertible universal sets. We then adapt this circuit construction to the framework of measurement based quantum computation(MBQC) and give new explicit examples of $n$-qubit graph states with fixed assignments of measurements (graph gadgets) giving rise to unitary $t$-designs based on partially invertible universal sets, in a natural way. We further show that these graph gadgets demonstrate a quantum speedup, up to standard complexity theoretic conjectures. We provide numerical and analytical evidence that almost any assignment of fixed measurement angles on an $n$-qubit cluster state give efficient $t$-designs and demonstrate a quantum speedup.

Publication

Efficient approximate unitary t-designs from partially invertible universal sets and their application to quantum speedup

At its core a $t$-design is a method for sampling from a set of unitaries in a way which mimics sampling randomly from the Haar measure on the unitary group, with applications across quantum information processing and physics. We construct new families of quantum circuits on $n$-qubits giving rise to $\varepsilon$-approximate unitary $t$-designs efficiently in $O(n^3t^2)$ depth. These quantum circuits are based on a relaxation of technical requirements in previous constructions. In particular, the construction of circuits which give efficient approximate $t$-designs by Brandao, Harrow, and Horodecki (F.G.S.L Brandao, A.W Harrow, and M. Horodecki, Commun. Math. Phys. (2016).) required choosing gates from ensembles which contained inverses for all elements, and that the entries of the unitaries are algebraic. We reduce these requirements, to sets that contain elements without inverses in the set, and non-algebraic entries, which we dub partially invertible universal sets. We then adapt this circuit construction to the framework of measurement based quantum computation(MBQC) and give new explicit examples of $n$-qubit graph states with fixed assignments of measurements (graph gadgets) giving rise to unitary $t$-designs based on partially invertible universal sets, in a natural way. We further show that these graph gadgets demonstrate a quantum speedup, up to standard complexity theoretic conjectures. We provide numerical and analytical evidence that almost any assignment of fixed measurement angles on an $n$-qubit cluster state give efficient $t$-designs and demonstrate a quantum speedup.