### Abstract

We first introduce heterodyne quantum state tomography, a reliable method for continuous variable quantum state certification which directly yields the elements of the density matrix of the state considered and analytical confidence intervals, using heterodyne detection. This method neither needs mathematical reconstruction of the data, nor discrete binning of the sample space, and uses a single Gaussian measurement setting. Beyond quantum state tomography and without its identical copies assumption, we also derive a general protocol for verifying continuous variable pure quantum states with Gaussian measurements against fully malicious adversaries. In particular, we make use of a De Finetti reduction for infinite-dimensional systems. As an application, we consider verified universal continuous variable quantum computing, with a computational power restricted to Gaussian operations and an untrusted non-Gaussian states source. These results are obtained using a new analytical estimator for the expected value of any operator acting on a continuous variable quantum state with bounded support over Fock basis, computed with samples from heterodyne detection of the state.

Publication

Building trust for continuous variable quantum states

We first introduce heterodyne quantum state tomography, a reliable method for continuous variable quantum state certification which directly yields the elements of the density matrix of the state considered and analytical confidence intervals, using heterodyne detection. This method neither needs mathematical reconstruction of the data, nor discrete binning of the sample space, and uses a single Gaussian measurement setting. Beyond quantum state tomography and without its identical copies assumption, we also derive a general protocol for verifying continuous variable pure quantum states with Gaussian measurements against fully malicious adversaries. In particular, we make use of a De Finetti reduction for infinite-dimensional systems. As an application, we consider verified universal continuous variable quantum computing, with a computational power restricted to Gaussian operations and an untrusted non-Gaussian states source. These results are obtained using a new analytical estimator for the expected value of any operator acting on a continuous variable quantum state with bounded support over Fock basis, computed with samples from heterodyne detection of the state.